Disaster and Earth Science

Aromatic carotenoids and maleimides


Aromatic carotenoids and maleimides as indicators for photic zone euxinia

Geological carotenoidPossible biological precursorsBiological sourcesReferences
okenaneokenoneChromatiaceaeSchaeffer et al., 19971
chlorobactanechlorobactene, hydroxychlorobactenegreen pigmented ChlorobiaceaeGrice et al., 1998c
isorenieratane2isorenieratenebrown pigmented ChlorobiaceaeBosch et al., 1998, Grice et al., 1996b, Hartgers et al., 1993, Koopmans et al., 1996a, Pancost et al., 1998, Putschew et al., 1998, Simons and Kenig, 2001, Sinninghe Damst et al., 2001
b-isorenieratane3b-isorenieratene, bcarotene4brown pigmented ChlorobiaceaeGrice et al., 1998c
renieratanerenieratenesponges or sponge symbionts? Chlorobiaceae?Hartgers et al., 1993, Schaefle et al., 1977
renierapurpurane5renierapurpurinsponges or sponge symbionts? Chlorobiaceae?Schaefle et al., 1977
palaerenieratane6unknownChlorobiaceae?Hartgers et al., 1993, Koopmans et al., 1996a, Requejo et al., 1992
2,3,6-TMAs7chlorobactene, hydroxychlorobactene, isorenieratene, b-isorenieratene, b-carotene 4 and similar structuresmostly Chlorobiaceae3Hartgers et al., 1993, Requejo et al., 1992, Summons and Powell, 1986, Summons and Powell, 1987, Summons and Powell, 1992
2,3,4-TMAs7okenone, renieratene renierapurpurinChromatiaceae Chlorobiaceae?Summons and Powell, 1987
3,4,5-TMAs7precursor of palaerenierataneChlorobiaceae?Hartgers et al., 1993, Requejo et al., 1992, Summons and Powell, 1987
Me i-Bu maleimideBChl c, d and eChlorobiaceae, ChloroflexaceaeGrice et al., 1996a, Grice et al., 1997, Pancost et al., 2002

1 Report of okenane as a hydrogenation product of okenone after H2/PtO2 treatment of a polar fraction extracted from a Recent lake sediment

2 Also including a large variety of di- to pentacyclic early diagenetic cyclization and rearrangement products of isorenieratene (Grice et al., 1996b, Koopmans et al., 1996a).

3 Only diagnostic for Chlorobiaceae if the carbon isotopic composition of individual arylisoprenoids shows an enrichment in 13C diagnostic of the reversed tricarboxylic acid cycle

4 According to Koopmans et al. (1996b), b-carotene can undergo aromatization during diagenesis to b-isorenieratane and further degradate to 2,3,6-TMAs

5 New trivial name suggested here (= perhydrorenierapurpurin)

6 New trivial name suggested here

7 TMA = trimethylarylisoprenoids.

>>Biomarker classification


>>>>Acetogenic lipids


>>>>Acyclic and cyclic isoprenoids

>>>>Polycyclic isoprenoids






>>>Diagenesis and catagenesis

>>Biomarker as Source Indicator

>>>Steranes, hopanes etc


>>>Environmental Indicators

>>>Indicators of Euxinia

>>Experimental methods to extract biomarkers

>>>Source rock