Disaster and Earth Science

Assignment on physical Oceanography


Physical Oceanography: Physical oceanography is the study of the physical properties and dynamic process of the oceans. For example-the patterns of the heat distribution within the ocean and the geophysics extent of current systems affect climate and weather.

Types: It’s typically divided into four sub- discipline. They are:

  • Physical oceanography( the study of waves ,currents ,tides and ocean energy);
  • Geological oceanography( the study of the sediments, rocks and structure of the seafloor and coastal margins)
  • Chemical Oceanography( the study of the composition and properties of seawater)
  • Biological Oceanography( the study of marine organisms and their interactions with the ocean)

It is a multidisciplinary subject which aligned to other fields such as atmospheric science, ocean geophysics and engineering. Physical oceanography used to know observations of the oceans and use physics, chemistry, mathematics, computer models and statistics to better understand how the oceans work and make more accurate predictions of how they may change in the future.

People who are interested about oceans and it’s physical elements they can take oceanography as their career. Most require advanced degrees including Ph.D. Related career tittles are:

Chemist                                                                                                 Research assistant
Naval researcher                                                                                   Biologist
Ocean driller                                                                                         Ocean engineer
Public policy writer                                                                             Coastal geologist
Technical editor                                                                                   Aquatic chemist
Hydrologist                                                                                           Climate researcher
Marine biologist                                                                                  College professor
Fisheries scientist                                                                                Environmental planner

Sectors of oceanography: Jobs in oceanography are found in government agencies, private firms and non- profit and academics institutions. Experienced oceanography –the top 75% of the field- earn an average of $99,690 or $47.93 per hour. These figures correspond roughly with those of the U.S statistics for all geologists, earning a medium annual salary of $93,580 or $44,990 as of May 2020.

Physical oceanography covers these topic:

  • ` Tides: Tides are the rise and fall of sea levels caused by the combined effects of the gravitational forces exerted by the Moon and the Sun and rotation of the Earth. Tide tables can be used for any given local to find the predicted times and amplitude. In 1920, an engineer, named Dexter Cooper came up the idea of  creating power if tides.


  • Waves: The waves allow the wind to transfer its energy to the water’s surface and to make it move. At the surface, waves promote the exchange of gases; CO2 into the oceans and O2 out. Currents and eddies mix the layers of water which would otherwise become stagnant and less conductive to life .There are different types of waves in oceanography. They are:


  • Heats: ocean heat content(OHC) is a term for the energy absorbed by the ocean, Where it is stored for indefinite time periods as internal energy or enthalpy. It responds to long- term changes in cloud albedo, greenhouse gases and other factors in the earth’s energy balance.

Assignment Submitted by Tasnim tamanna adrita