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How to Write an Introduction of Scientific Paper

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How to Write an Introduction of a Scientific Paper

An introduction is like a foundation of an architectural work. It’s a first and important statement to create readers’ interest in that. To the reader, it is more important than any other part. The technical report demands that the first page/ two shall provide a comprehensive idea of the whole report. Its role is to bridge the gap between the writer and the reader.

The introduction is designed to prepare the intended reader intellectually and emotionally for interpreting and evaluating a message.


The introduction is the first event of communication.

Its objective is to introduce the subject to the readers.

It leads a reader to go deep into the article.

Most authors want to express several issues in this section.

As a result, a lot of confusion arises. Most young scientists face a great deal of problems in writing an introduction for their paper.

Here is the in-depth discussion on how to write the Introduction of a Scientific Paper:

We are not familiar with writing an introduction

I don’t know exactly what an introduction should contain

I don’t know what an introduction should do for the reader

I don’t know how to determine what the reader already knows

I don’t know how to organize the material effectively

I can’t proceed with confidence in writing an introduction

The purposes it will serve to the reader: the qualitative characters

Information to be incorporated in an introduction: the structural characters/contents

How to organize information in an introduction: organizing style


Determining what the reader already knows


Think back to the time you were assigned the work:

What briefing were you given?

What questions did you ask?

What preliminary investigation did you have to do?

What information did you discover?

Your own needs could serve as a reliable gauge


Levels of reader context

A- Technical knowledge common to everyone
B- Added knowledge common to everyone
C-Highly specialized knowledge common only to a few people
D- Subject of the report


Components of an Introduction:


Background information of the study the subject

A brief statement of the problem-basic research questions

Review of previous works or the existing body of knowledge on the issue

Importance and justification of the study:

Why is the research being conducted?

Concluding remarks-final argument in favor of the research/study

Specific objectives or hypothesis


Organizing an Introduction

The introduction must follow some organizational pattern

Should proceed from familiar to unfamiliar

From the general to the specific

From doubt to open-mindedness


There are several ways to accomplish this development

The appropriate level of context in which the subject is to be introduced


Inverted Pyramid technique

The apex represents the special subject to be presented in the report

The baseline represents the broader area of context

The development involves closing in on the subject through one or a series of logical steps

The number of steps required depends on the length of the base line

The writer and reader meet at the highest level


Single step introduction


  • It is sufficient when the writing is addressed to colleagues
  • A common pattern is a problem-solving sequence
  • Problem explains the why
  • Solution explains the why


More than one step may be desirable to introduce the same subject to a wider technical audience


Problem-purpose sequence:


  • A statement of the problem exposes an underlying cause
  • The purpose relates the immediate investigation to the cause-effect problem
  • Some writers prefer to begin with a statement of purpose followed by a statement of problem.
  • But it has some disadvantages as:
  • The transition from introduction to body is not as smooth
  • Motivation can not build up as effectively

Awkward redundancy sometimes  exists between the title and the opening of the introduction


Multi-step Introduction

  • Readers may lose interest and quit
  • For this reason, the writer should never assemble an introduction into a single, many-page paragraph
  • Instead, the material might be divided into logical parts
  • Each part might be a paragraph

A group of paragraphs tied together by a heading



  • Readers need and want an introduction in their report
  • Writers can trim the introduction to fit their readers’ need
  • Some introductions have to be long because great historical background is needed to bring the reader up-to-date

Then, length can be less objectionable by dividing the material into sections and headings

Introduction of Scientific Paper

Qualitative Characters


Motivation/Grow interest

Fill in the knowledge gap

Lead to the problem

Follow Organizational pattern


Structural Characters


Background information

Statement of problem


The existing body of knowledge

Concluding remark

Correct and specific objectives