Geophysics – the physics of the earth and its environment in space also the study of the earth using quantitative physical methods. Modern geophysics involves broader definition that includes hydrological cycle, snow and ice fluids dynamics of the ocean, electricity and magnetism in the ionosphere and magnetosphere .
Electricity and magnetism of ionosphere: The ionosphere is the ionized part of earths upper atmosphere from about 48 km to 965 km altitude. A region that includes the thermosphere and part of the mesosphere and exosphere . The ionosphere is ionized by solar radiation. It plays an important role in atmosphere electricity and forms the inner edge of the magnetosphere to distant places of the earth .
The ionosphere is a shell of electrons and electrically charged atoms and molecules the surrounds the earth , stretching from a height of about 50 km to more than 1000 km . It exists primarily due to ultraviolet and X-ray and shorter wavelength of solar radiation are ionizing since photons at these frequencies contain sufficient energy to dislodge an electron from a neutral gas atom or molecule upon absorption . The reverse p
rocess of ionization is recombination . Ionization depends primarily on the sun and its activity . The local winter hemisphere is tipped away rom the sun , thus there is less received solar radiation .
Various layer present in the ionization. These are termed as E, D, F.
At night F layer is the only layer of significant ionisation present , while the ionisation in the E an D layer is extremely low . During the day , the D and E layers become much more heavily ionized as does the F layer , which develop an additional weaker region of ionisation known as the F1 layer. The assignment of the ionosphere is the ionized part of earths upper atmosphere from about 48 km to 965 km altitude.